Full frame, crop sensor and MFT Camera Sensor Size Explained | Learn Photography Episode 13

Full frame, crop sensor and MFT Camera Sensor Size Explained | Learn Photography Episode 13


[MUSIC PLAYING] Hello, and welcome
to GMax Studios. In today’s episode,
we are going to talk about the various
sensor sizes that are available on
different cameras and how they affect
our photography. [MUSIC PLAYING] For everything in the world
there is a set standard. And in photography
this standard has been set as the 35
mm film format, which means that the standard
that you take in photography is equivalent to
the 35 mm negative that you used to exist. Not that there
weren’t other formats. There were formats like medium
format and large format. But still the 35
mm was considered to be a standard, since it
was such a popular medium. So in modern
technology any sensor that equals the negative of a 35
mm film which is 36 mm by 24 mm is considered to be
a full frame sensor. [MUSIC PLAYING] Full frame sensors came pretty
late to the digital scene because the technology to
manufacture such big sensors just did not exist. So before full frame
sensors came into being, sensors were made
in a format which was known as the APS format. And this format was roughly
one and a half times smaller than the size of a
full frame sensor. APS-C sensors, which stands for
Advanced Photo System Classic, are approximately 24
mm by 15 mm in size and are roughly one and
a half times smaller than a full frame. [MUSIC PLAYING] And the sensors usually put in
your point and shoot cameras are even smaller. And the ones in the mobile
phones can barely be seen. [MUSIC PLAYING] Of course, there
are sensors larger than 35 mm still
being made today, which are called
medium format sensors. Companies Ike Phase One,
Hasselblad, and Fuji specialize in making
these kind of sensors. [MUSIC PLAYING] Now the question is how
does sensor size affect our photographs? Before we get into how sensor
sizes affects of photographs, let us understand what
is an image circle. [MUSIC PLAYING] The image that the lens
projects onto the sensor is called the image circle. [MUSIC PLAYING] So the first thing that gets
affected by different sensor sizes is the focal length of
the lens that you are using. Since most lenses were
made according to the 35 mm full frame sensor size, if your
camera is a full frame sensor size, there is
obviously no change. But if you are using a
camera with a smaller sensor, it is able to capture only a
portion of the entire image circle, therefore, seeming as
if the image has been zoomed in. This effect it’s called
crop factor or focal length multiplier. Now since an APS-C crop sensor
is about 1.5 times smaller than the full frame
sensor, the zoom or the crop in the focal
length is also 1.5 times. So for example, if you use a
50 mm lens on a cropped sensor, on like an APS-C, it
would become a 75 mm lens. Similarly, if you were
to use 100 mm lens, it would become 150 mm lens. [MUSIC PLAYING] Similarly, Olympus and Panasonic
developed a sensor size of their own, which was
approximately half the size of a full frame sensor. And they called it a
micro four thirds sensor. Now, the focal length
multiplier of this sensor is two times that of
a full frame sensor. So if you put on a 50
mm lens on this sensor it would become 100 mm. [MUSIC PLAYING] So to avoid all this confusion,
most lens manufacturers, along with the format
of their lenses, they write a 35
equivalent focal length alongside the written
focal length on the lens. [MUSIC PLAYING] Terminology wise, Nikon calls
their full frame cameras FX and their crop
sensor cameras DX. Similarly, Cannon’s full
frame cameras are EF and the crop sensor
are called EF-S. And Sony had developed
an E-mount earlier which still exists, but
is not very popular. But they developed an E-mount
with their NEX series, and now the full frame sensor
is called the FE-mount. Since crop sensors are
cheaper to produce, obviously, the cameras
which have crop sensors are obviously cheaper in price. But that does not mean
that they are not good. In fact, a lot of photographers
use this crop factor to their advantage. A lot of photographers use
crop sensor bodies deliberately to increase the reach
of their lenses, because if you put on 300 mm
lens on a crop sensor body, it would become a 450 mm lens,
thereby increasing your reach and enabling you to get
closer to your subject. A thing to remember
that sensor size is not everything in a camera. The color science as well
as the camera processor has a very important
part to play in how your final photograph looks. Now traditionally, it is
taught that higher megapixels are better. But while higher megapixels give
you more resolution and detail in a photograph, they also
cause an increase in noise, especially at higher ISOs. This is the reason
why Nikon’s top end DF has got just 20 megapixels
and Sony A7S2, which is supposed to be
the low light King, has just got 12 megapixels. Now if you cram these
higher megapixels into even smaller sensors,
the inherent danger of producing noise
becomes even more. Sensor size also affects
the depth of field apart from the aperture,
of course, as you must have seen in episode 7. So for example, if you put a
50 mm 1.4 lens on a micro four thirds camera, your focal length
would be equivalent to 100 mm. But the depth of field
would also double. Therefore, it would become
closer to 100 mm 2.8 lens, rather than 100 mm 1.4 lens. So technically, if we
keep the same frame, we will see that the
smaller sensors produces a deeper depth of field. And for this very same
reason, when you take pictures with mobile phones, everything
seems to be in focus. It is not because
of anything else, but due to a very,
very small sensor. There is a lot more to sensors. But we shall talk about
the advanced stuff at a later stage. Till then share this
video with your friends. Subscribe to this
channel and follow us on Instagram,
Twitter, and Facebook. Until the next video, take care. [MUSIC PLAYING]

30 thoughts on “Full frame, crop sensor and MFT Camera Sensor Size Explained | Learn Photography Episode 13

  1. Small request, please do an episode on optimal settings for Nikon. Like active d-lighting, white balance, bracketing etc…. Actually I used to get great photos from my d5200. I was playing around while trying manual mode, now all pictures are coming dark and images are not clear…. Can I visit somewhere to get the original settings.

  2. Thank You Sir! Could you please dedicate a video explaining Film Scoring in Bollywood movies ! I am really interested in knowing it !

  3. Sir but you didn't clarify whether the is such huge difference in clarity of full frame pics vs crop sensor pics ? Does it justify higher price ??

  4. hello sir,
    i tried all app for Android phone to connect my Nikon D3200 with wire but no one app is best.
    if you know perfect app so please suggest me.

  5. Hi,
    Will you make a video on, what is the difference between Mirrorless and DSLR camera?
    What will be the future of DSLR? will they continue to exist in the future or they will disappear in the race with mirrorless considering the development of mirrorless from 3-5 years from now?

  6. And what about the aperture .if we use a apsc dslr with 24-70mm f2.8 lens,it would be 36-105mm and aperture would be f4.2 ?????
    I am following Tony Northrop video quite some time.. he explained that ….but still I have bit confusion ….if possible plz make it clear because no one is taking about this crop factor effect on aperture.

  7. Thank you for sharing this video! Now I understand the difference clearly. I appreciate your all efforts for putting putting all information in an easy to understand language ๐Ÿ™‚

  8. This is really good… All information you are sharing has helped me to understand photography better…. Can you make one episode on advanced point and shoot cameras like Nikon p900? It has almost all settings like a DSLR but still if you can provide inputs specially on its limitations would be helpful… Thanks again Gorky M

  9. very informative. I had already subscribed and even told my friends about the information and learning we can have from you.Thanks

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