Congolese Prospects: Natural Resources and Peace – Peace Talks

Congolese Prospects: Natural Resources and Peace - Peace Talks



ladies gentlemen can everybody hear good good evening my name is is my date among the protector of the world are white society and it's my great pleasure to welcome you and your team here to our premises and more welcoming to global new ladies and gentlemen as well the rcs is the longest established civil society organization in the carnival family and we have a very broad interest and a remit of increasingly stretches beyond the member countries and we booked a view really the Commonwealth in the context of the world at large and to share experiences in addressing challenges to society I might mention here the very positive and the port Commonwealth society's undertaking with international alert on the reconciling reconciliation process in Sri Lanka and of course with the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting imminent in november this year this is very thoughtful for us a present so very grateful for that collaboration in the peace top series led by international alert and the University of Sussex is an initiative which the rule Commonwealth society is also very proud to be involved and I'm sure that the experience that we can draw from the Democratic Republic of Congo as both direct and indirect relevance to the Commonwealth large I've been asked to remind you that they suggested hashtag for tonight is hash p sports and the event is being live streamed and recorded I believe and that it's it's everything the audio not marketable so we want to get up and dance about just just just do it visually I'm now going to hand over to to Dan who will take on the ceilings the resting you and thank so much i think it was about the fuel to an announcement inception and I'm very much for welcoming us to go from a lot of power for another in our series of peace talks this is another one which would like that we're doing also University of such a couple is really strange that you should be the thumbs up it's already soft okay I was not a slow feedback one other technical point mobile phones it is not much better if they are off an affair time and it's really terrible on so based on particular this event is probably going to take about an hour and half hour 15 minutes or so we usually taken to these you can spend 75 minutes of your life connected to thinking and talking about one of the world's very problems rather than being connected to the world sacrifice everyone and having I can show how we have four tremendous panacea to help us pick our way through the tangle with the conflicts in the DRC starting over on that side of the fence pathologist Sussex decided by the temple who has non-governmental organization so I'll organize a safety Congo who I thought I was getting confused with Alex on phone with director of a neurological research company for expert advisory researchers and in the middle is very elaborate international program for the VRC we're not doing this evening to identify a solution solution to the problems of the Democratic Republic of Congo could be identified in 70 or 75 minutes an intelligent conversation and we recommend with a pattern already what I'm hoping we do that we r the issues in a way that can slack on and show some of the interpolation and gets past some of the position taken it were often obviously tempted into the fraud which allows us to understand that I am in order perhaps to see some possible when it's all so we will be trying to this content analyze prospects for peace as I recall as much we will be fine we were talking in the room just beforehand about you know how far back to trace this possibly 1993 would be good starting point even before around refugees into DRC perhaps go back to topics in the 1960s that 12 d make a little bit of a line to them it gets arguable but maybe one can think about connecting that to colonial the green road your complex going and them by the end the sort of the highest bid so to speak back to the 17th century and then we drew language that we don't need to be discussing quite that far back but these conflicts which we are seeing now in eastern Congo have a history they have a contract Esprit they have multiple layers of history we're going to look a little bit in particular I'm not exclusively a question of natural what all that plays in the continuation conflict also of the region last year a supposed was appointed piece of the precarious something or he fell apart with the use of infantry became distracted up with the infantry earlier this year there was a peace agreement in one sense very tired control what she would say same old same on the force which had gone into the army CM living and out of the aliens and 23 that was fighting as another piece of another reason how can we break through this site I want to start with a special by 10 so Maria and you landed if you recall nine o'clock so what's the situation that you left behind tell us a little bit about what is going on actually right now there are now 13 stops in our group that problem and the Golden Army in a bid to move troops of origin which are rapidly filled by other words and so which creates fathers of insecurity and massacres in other parts of the points which are much mustard let's heard about so for instance in one parent territory in the village you have an important events since many other and these are messages contritely provided so the situation is very stable person sort of highly beards of paranoia and go fighting around because what people give direction has created one at a time and of course that happen as you settle for various offenses stabilization favorite is and these are all to some degree promising to advance but those cones will have reflection and so there's much the special file here I will one-third which was which and why but i would say that really right now in your toilet situation can you give us a sense of some houses just approximate I mean is there any idea about how many people are in the past and I don't think anybody has revisit obsessing about those numbers vary greatly anyone which boss be oppressed like the summers there was a time when engineer three were elaborate meanwhile they're very well how many how many people have too much six minutes later than 25 refugees coming in one year a 2.6 million people and how big is the the game is meant to come up to roughly sweetheart root so run server but it's not fair when he arrived and even from one would rather they become free when they do from where you say what would you want to add in scenario from a couple of things first thing we need to take into account if the dc's in the first he still this is actually bit tank you n factors under Christian Congress and professionals and weak South Africa at subsidized all the other signatures of any significant progress be skills so there isn't anything significant we need in that this bill and personally I feel in principle it could lead to some pretty good feel fabulous division but a couple of other things intuitively to account the reason probably pitch further we need if we go back in ten years ago in 2003 were making it very same situation that we have with first you will get that this community outside groups and home Sabrina develop enough almond and after that we had an incredible drivability attempts by the international community sort of stabilize the region behind in the sun city of old only key militia again hulu reported to the government and caliber forthwith to his forces on congruent and national government was put together all the great things were done in from which owns and i felt and we need to ask ourselves why has he found why did we find yourself ten years later with over 10 billion spent on wouldn't and peaceful science that can we meet the crisis and the reason is and this is one of the issues which all of us and if ngos and journalists and expert at this stuff over the past 10 years we have paid way too much attention together and i agree we should pay attention we should recognize what God has been doing a one of the key element with black belt is injustice the reason we found loss of 10 years 88 expresses is the presence of leadership in Johnson and so we need to find a way to address the crisis and I think if the currently still is coupled with in on an HP punitive and then you know we do with the image issues of insecurity and music deal with issues of illicit minerals and institutional creedon interests and then it could have a chance but if we only follow the P stand for in a compute is left untouched insecurities that from touching you know stations of the state are not reformed and so forth federal find ourselves five mins on in this industry okay so but let's just keep from moment arrives on the background but why what is the problem if what you said which I mean I absolutely agree with is whatever problems you got it creates you've got to look at the problem of Kinshasa so in a couple of sentences but what is the problem service in my experience I would say common has only the coverage we call them before buys in punitive insecurity MZ national trade of third maneuvers and institutional faded but it common denominators those problems is a class of leadership trust me to be reformed we need to find the way whether I swing it doesn't sort of pave the way for some sort of picnic patty government a pussy but something need to be done in features i did injustice or dealt with nothing will significantly change James crisis of leadership somewhere it says when you have about you just so people know you were living in this area they are see some five years ago yes yes that's a long time but back in racism in the 1980s doing studying work with Oxfam some and doing research so that's right many what I can bring back to this discussion is to step back a little bit from the intricacies of the present just between some of the structural forces shaping why there is a problem in Chapter relationships with with the external world and to do that they like the back to the 17th century but only very briefly because conv was the center of all a big slave trade which instituted modes of governance which were extracted traffic today the population declined by about noon between the 17 late 19th century as you know the slave trade seeded first to reliably trade where these Atkins ladies better they use the same extracting techniques transforming political structures in two modes of exact those modes of exaction continue two options into the brother which is oh but there is a direct inheritance from slavery through these to the ivory through political tactics which enabled people to gain control over certain regions and what people fail to see so much of a Belgian era drew what the very same tactic so the moments of his possession in the establishment area the modes of dispossession were by force they took people away from hands of resources and inequalities with available by 4 so the banana people from tambo their regions of automotive you become laborers so the the moment of governance of the scene from the minister today actually is easily traced to 0 but also so is the International mode they are seeds in his day so for example in the Second World quote here the British igniting 48 window the necessity preventing the territories voluntary reporting it was too important we've resorted under a lie American control to let me know the control and at that time that means due to the Iranian because the Iranian those delivered two nights our devotion azusa reacted so the the American presence the a-line presence was fundamental to late that moved on into the combo so to quote again it was said during the Cold War that the Western cold war kids I ear with in West people so the Congo became the theater or corner given that you said of all at the time of the secession was linked to resources as point around Google another other Cold War tensions and then moving up to today we find the new National Security Advisor rice same effect in 2001 which is now back in back in position we must find effective ways to secure Africa's vast natural resources which stands total Iranian oil and look old at all so they don't provide currency to the world to terrorists so the 1940s it was an artist in 1960s in the nineteen to now the catera but one another who will be prior to their ability to prevent some other geopolitical stop so what is shaping the politics of shaving also political policies other the resource extraction practices but shape configured national politics but also configure exaction as a preventive so Alex I mean one of the things that people often say about DRC is talking about it was a failure more a franchise debt but actually what things is talking about is a state which if if the state were a life abstract concept state is pretty good at doing what the pieces that this is this is an efficient and effective state he's possibly ugly better really we had enemies overstating elastic all week I want you to win it we could be story to coat closet conduct today let's start from the dummy type of wen Hao kilometres with having africa the official autumns body was tragic congo was alleged that meeting handed over an area food area equal to the size of alaska 0 you are to the guy working better um Hawaii even wanted to give that those orders did not enough they hundreds oops that course even worth language options where they actually given so much ft what about those people really what is even more stronger be there was three in the corner time that was kind of a traditional strong laws comics and that has not been able to be addressed and regret that was a low kinetics alone which he linked to lounge and of course are very very identity what was the complex but elope to become up here come on believe you have to belong to the state and its traditional authority and that means that is you have targeted away what is even stronger is that traditional Authority give you more authority and move up on that little interest rate so what if that's me I was kind of civic which initially which mistake and native which is that belonging to have a customer right ready a convicted to the customer might mean that you have a massive you think if you own one after editing group and for instance we happen that they don't have customer right automatically don't have right to it easy it's like let's say bowling bracket but if helping that when they define that they have to be rollin finding that unblock and if that would have existed to define that in black they don't know black factory you know so that is still going on today in addition to batch I'm getting this recorded to watch trailer or collective much it is that cost delicacy of brutality which suggests are just emotion which then again from king of all time and where as I'm sure you know many little people items and of course the map was eight which are bring back to your question and that's steal from all the time and that's why wasn't fun to change name our x over four of our four teams and that's exactly reflection of lack of state which doesn't provide security and protection to people and when you try to differentiate a dynamics of you can come home last thirty roads which is attached on regional issues with those and I and I causes which goes into interpose back and ro of our own only so so controlling I got a strange elements natural resources ethnic difference the issue of land just about briefly the international dimension another compartment the regional we're a little bit on on the and questioned is due to pick that up in this horrible skewer conflict dynamics duty talk about roots and sometimes the root is become so is the client with so many different things congo isn't completely unique enough I any means but it does seem a particular case in all these different come together feeding into each other so so what about the lamb bishop well I see their much being a triangle between land issues how the access to the medical pound and so they say how you mean primarily lethal now or other kinds of life so a little trough at all local level to level and at a local level because of the fact there are roots of complex that are they all in tonight so far the reasons why was your regional level and take dominance or so quite because it puts on to other existing dynamics so coming back Spurs there is a curve inter connection between land if you will need to call resources access to many local car and my dinner should be ethnic and also national identity question that it's just raised which is around to you on your colleague or raised on your comp leads by way also far away or through and at mr. Graydon that on one hand is instead to the ethnic group so if you are a member of that group that was in Kabul of the primal almost created then you are always so it's selling on one end but they still electric us as you want but and so let this kind of questions of telling you are if I you seem to belong are you seem to be and even people were coming from conservative on that particular third because belonging to a place as in a context of state belly at what you have is a predominance cutting your conventional shoes in some cases have been replaced by community service so that's how you claim you're right and customi authority to also claims its right to authority control of the land so there for that reason those three questions are closely interconnected and although they play themselves out very differently possibly tomorrow because each places is on history and by Emma again makes the total then kind of basic fire call it is isn't it almost all things okay before we will keep on moving in an orderly way through having talked about today the craft background of moving forward looking at that point I'll start first with question I just got one of the things i wanna throw i'm not sure who may feel like answering this but there's nothing special is that about having multiple identities I mean you know some coziest suburb of London even inherited you have I know you have a multi-layered identity not only as a in terms of national anthem street where you know we can video I I'm randomly I'm English British European occasionally Norwegian sometimes know a little bit of my ancestry comes floating in but then also in other ways individuals to what your what your gender is your sexual preference your relief draw of the faith political beliefs book and you see in many cases where one sort of casts providers in one level like they will become suddenly particularly important for a while as it did in a book unless it's quite a well-dressed and well research process happening they're both invested Bosnia and certainly in particular so is there something special about the layering of identity you're facing here about its interaction with the other factors contagious people former you mentioned oh come oh we means we noticed and a very traditional society and detachment deep depressions my followers and compounding the west of family my mother's catechism SI sono father side of others it nice eyes he had my travel and I belong to my mother sees my father die virgins I wouldn't take anything like to my mother to my father everyone was with his nephews and because I belong to my mother and all my other side day after trail so I mean I told you all my other side I've decided on my father side 30 from other rider I shouldn't take you very bad because i'm going to prefer the side so you find yourself in the middle but that does not actually ministry factors on police but it does not and absolutely one first to be critically on this world there is an ethnicity has played an incredible holding cables because of the question of land when it Aadland equation when it becomes an incredible singing but we need to keep our focus but to see you to assume that without with dispatch this act only thing these prices because of ethnicity or because of that is absurd and infantry observed it does not make sense this price is best academics are sort of divided on despite some say engine antifreeze on 79th force and say 99-88 were involved in village investigator oh lets people n th this country we are in this passes because of the 1980s invasion that you know if that even happen Abner's we probably oughta be in this crisis and mother did not increase on wood because by the one which project is neither sought nor such people is here for the cultural resources the end being an all-city coma which was going to vanish again did not come into existence because they wanted put a certain ethnicity they came to existence because value multitude of officiates invest in version of google and 673 dinner comment rate it's a miracle for him to agree so if necessary and land have been manipulated by the gurus and militia gangs in the same with a monkey money please ethnicity to remain in power so Anthony we will talk about intensity because that gives them a legitimacy and in your ear I've noticed because our families and for Western anointed word 21 and 20 30 cm people say I'm fighting because I want to put a picture to the first nine times in mind is the night in expo genocide and imagine say you feel part of it a beauty different times different end because there is no technicalities but that is a camper that's not an issue however having said that and any comments are focusing now we have a real problem in which he has now found a new issue and he has a very rich in the sense now every time and he has been militia gathers absolutely mechanic it consistent like the appeal which is it stable you know you watch the West but it doesn't work on the ground there plz we are fighting to protect it uses and that's absolutely fine fully was an audience but it's a terrible PL Pujols only one because you can only space to 36 million other if messages to protect the Tootsie trillion on sort of create a humanitarian passes it is simply makes no sense that enough video building open which they should still stop using that power because it's simply making a whole situation much worse and totaled up there is no one thing you notice in Havana hotel all day one impact manish against will convince apologetically none of the leadership is a holy city over before publicity division most of the older and art are 25 magic Uncle Tom they came from Uganda proven that and in every one is a universal it's absurd awesome all the qualities are fighting to the lagoon sir it's not it's not rude okay we start from all the times you want to take this relationship to land in event what I was living in some people gained like access through custom reaching other people who supported for that the customer is posed problem but the Catholic Church in tomorrow the National rise against a solution other people use the Dalton project as a way of securing their own other people what I'm getting at is that in order to secure your particular you needed to play upsetting and that you are going to your religious identity your enterprising your modernist again and and so these kinds of complex identities which become single right in the street when you have a free day to restate it occurs when there is exaction and you need to be protected it first when you have protection racket of work goes on throughout Eastern so this complex relationship between identity and particularly the habits routine the today to announce table okay I mean time to think about how to move forward with what we can what is like this on phone in college when you see prospects lying now I think I think the desert do is really as you can you could hear there is a different dynamics and understanding optical clarity and but it's really interesting is that different interventions have been the best only problem also status and for me as I push it is going is looking at the Venetian erosion general dynamics and especially tucked in with the underlying issues and we talk about history and how we link to today especially we talk about something own what we discuss it is at the lack of state and which is really have quest to promote the cohesion between the month later for that matter example you provided which is for rpm which is exactly laughs and how about celebrating those different they are if we have a formal leadership and garrison but organized the people home and cost identity and all different entities within one group's and promoting that and submitting the diversity as a resource rather than the negative thing see that's what asleep at restricting alcohol building strong with that theme of people under the method and to reform into equities and death set which is accountable because they have never be attended to think that I think the thing that's only to sweep the leadership and Gaza because the exactly what I need to do something to promote it as treat them really would be naive to think that they don't know the cause of issues so really is about searching for new issues rather than fighting wrong diagnosis which you need to oxygen oh say there is the author's about like the very top all images throughout the history of collaboration I want to know is more of a long-term recommendation I think on the one hand is very important to try and find on the Harrisburg between the different parts of this nation because on the one hand you have the International forget on the other hand you have the peace security cooperation Franklin Sonya letters which is a toast to all encapsulate the brigade which has regional threat under which the countries in the region commit to soft experience and the domestic on the rich economies government commits regaining number of guns before cruising set to perform just as a fox or our support so it's very important to find an appearance but between those two new trade the removal process marriott's appears in charges concerning which are facilitating and these navigator right now there is really a real risk that this the arrival you just the right Morris International Brigade is seeing five years ago as a promise of military victory to come or at the very least as an opportunity to put off making political concessions and on taking those is central government elect people what you were saying protect I think that is very important and during that does not mean letting the country to move off the hook it means having a balanced and that is what the pieces pre-operative framework priced do but it is a very weak seine-maritime or no expected so I think it's also very important that the international community has the girls but that's to say things as they are and to really engage for what come with government in a real file about what are the requirements or domestic stability and we've got which has to be your faces or also the Congolese government to be able to manage the regional veteran combo is off all of the only country in the world that has neighbors that have varied interests on territory where whether it's security and minerals email this is a condition that many other countries managing around the world so surely Congolese government is also able should be able to conquer fight whether conventional construction plan doesn't have to be a zero-sum game there can be benefits those leaves stay there for the people as well but the elite michelle's power has to be persuaded that there are games in moving forward in that way of craft and very mopping up and the problem I think is that there is a very short-term focus on what can I could snap yep essentially and therefore even if you could say that there should be rational interest in having a little bit more so there was a little bit more infrastructure because then you can be developed and there's all the peak flows better for that requires having love it and if you don't have it and your focus is only for a few years at a time when even an investment of five years tomorrow and that's all the problem I just want to say one last thing which is I think at the end of the day whatever there's no magic solutions it's clear but also this national community and vertical is to agree results have to stop thinking about the new service with infantile image which to some degree the homies going to stop this course by quieting always to outside actors as beings but it's not to say that there are also mad scientist applying but basically taking away the power from economies to my salute their own properly so all solutions have to be focused on how economies themselves in power between the excess for their only change and that has to be the focus of all our intimations so I'm going to a lot more question but then I want the microphone ready to be ready to hand around and people think what question what neat prison well-appointed kept save the Congo it's the unbelief job safety Congress I mean isn't isn't that where this conversation must come to absolutely absolutely I think oh yes captured and we have available then we'll ask 30 second and I mean to befall the deficit in this mean we too much changing people and in which you pay attention together but they has been absolutely the Contessa journalist they're angels all of us we have given conversing divided and that has been one of the missing element when it will believe that so we've been fantastically swing from the young star we have focused on in Chattanooga's really clearly you lifting chasa everything else before you know felicity but in our friends in any community i decided to leave it again for getting each other but we need you to kiss each other so interested people should be booked ok so let's take some questions from all the food it's a question by want to react also the notion of multi-layered identity in the cabo what is very interesting is that ok now experiencing in eastern como that country that there is a question which I've never read any where the international community all that experts ask why is it that lets say when you look at South katanga where you're the baby bath who actually have been trading between katanga and Sonia or during the war in Angola where you had the chalk way oh wait business between a casa and angola and then it's a well-known fact that people do to each other the truth in jest and prosecute a cross back and forth and or not there's also that say that movie too from coco he was from central Africa but why is it that in all these neighboring borders the issue of identity has never reached the level you reach it reach now in eastern Congo and bear in mind that in the 80s a lot of successful comedies businessman with a lot of money BGP route Rhonda and Uganda so I think that we are actually addressing but the wrong problem when people talk about the notion of identity because there is another fundamental question why is it that despite the fact that Congo is a face it as a nation he hasn't really crumbled what is it that hold on bodies as a nation okay thank you very much for taking another question hi my name is cheerio boys are on the local connection to other companies as well I just came back combo offset free markets questioning i say the first one is going to be about any peace between the m23 and the government's yes there's a lot of leadership in Kinshasa yes we should do beds are we have to do more part we are seeing ourselves a question of Congolese people with all that international community's divided now and they just always though the left are telling us to do or Institute to work hard in Tel Aviv achieve what we have to do in common to move forwards but we see days there's another part of the interns community that are to be supporting the people that are causing trouble in the combo so we don't understand exactly what is going on we're trying to help but in other hand these new people are trained to have the comedy community by the combo so we need to know what is the computer they international community's up doing the form of these people because we had given in the column for about 10 years we have 17,000 convert UN soldiers in the comp but it comes to introduce a bit of understands what 17,000 people in the corner in common we have more willful college they could not have another post so we are no such credit question more is actually going on between the international community they need to look at itself as well to find that exactly Maurice tuck the system that is causing the pain in the combo that is needed and able to do thanks you got that fat question about what this thing that's for the international community thinks is doing if it were a person getting up in the morning however look at yourself remember that's worth us that's worth putting some have an icon and also this question about though they're given that the identity issues are different from play out differently in different parts of plc ah was our discussion in danger of over Lana rising the identity issues or did we have them neatly in place in relation to your governments and so on why don't you start I think every those who you want but not both okay all right well I'll see the last week talking about that because that doesn't mean treating it as if it was you know sui generis category but not just exists people have multiplied again also to follow the same there are many crosswater communities in the Congo as well not just that people prayed that you have groups that have affinity language affinity cultural affinity across orders all over so why does it create products specifically I think the question of political manipulation ethnic identity is very very intense because if you have it is the closest base or collective relationships and if you do in the business where the State Police Review doesn't function or rather the state concerns itself other priorities and what we might concern is a roll so room free to mention it gets made it in the center confess on it as government or any other holds itself in power through a wide range of alliances with political actors at all levels and place and it uses yes each other in order to hold on so it's not about being selected agree but also he would have thighs for what they are so therefore it has become something that people will do receive a key so it can't be treated in time it's just something so why is because is in the east coast lies with a number of other complex factors so not just the regional facts and of course 1994's we all share willing refugees even though it's not like Congo as a peaceful Haven before nine for all as well that's not the case but yes that was a very upsetting dynamic and this and the existence of resources that are easily accessible just on the ground also plus it's a medium that has a very specific history there was a talk about slavery so eventually eastern corner is illusion that would not subjected slavery interestingly because at that time the Randy's kingdom was kind of protecting their budgets were Park the office of human roses which is kind of do you think about it third situation so I think that you have to you have to look at the historic dynamic have to look at the resources and the presence of the state or rather transferring presence they know to find an explanation for why that particular conversions of fascism it's over it's always never ethnicity all by itself it doesn't it's always always as Mrs T multiplied by some on the same book and one Kingdom is David's then its influence to go for some people living on such Adrienne's Lamont I am saying the Arab slave traders came that way Italy what we heard earlier did for prudent in here today but let me get back to my patients and they were white cables I mean I woke things much more than others in design we are we need situated and clothes on vulnerable to deep in the past we need to remember and go less than 20 days of the Civil because liputin when today the galleys one way the other perishable supporting alicia daniels in french kissing he can happen pretty soon he may pick up the phone first well so 20 years ago a couple years ago back and he was competent we were supporting a single and good Addison 28 thousands hundreds of people killed annotating rape and so food levels that wasn't gonna the same situation he had involve having one who had a getty mother whose it fit and cookies essentially category mother in power I believe anyone and present a leading one that his streamwood took place in kombu to show how truth where we would give us permit in hwy 90 97 which was running away cleanly riparian he helps with positive achievement predated happy with my divided president he's very beautiful booty mortgagee that just to give you an idea of how clothes in it so we did they historically in the mini bottles in a bout of the ball and today in a suddenly we are paying the so yes past but virtually in a white within a friend of mine where the question of the community and I think after 19 x food was an incredible sense of guilt in the world and not to sort of stand up against the galley I mean the world community had not being served in a change in their proper body happen only is it stuck in a deviant I speak with and South Africa with an incredible in supporting his students also there has been a lot of initiatives the reason we have we are in this situation because of the paths of leadership in inchasa but having said that now they deserve realizations internationals people want to see the confident on end and I don't think Obama would want to finish his presidency and having let this object untouched and for the first time this tonight engineer it would be one disease which and then and 11 others decided to stop giving money to panic over under and you need to remember in 2003 when the Harding's force is already would you like to die officially at least one really has these forces also put around the crib religions so today one has best influence any hiding 2003b food some reason we decided to stop and so people becoming more proactive in sort of help you bring alleged expresses still the question arises and focus on track what is it two kids doing or is wondering i think this essentially just go back to resources that we listed after all in one point three week a year of the UN intervention 30,000 I've just a bit too aggressive in March and what what is shocking is that it apply 100 miles to count offices and observe and one thing which I do is stopping when we say we do it instead of only need to count opposite westview preventing for you can pounce people I I know how to do that and still really going back to the question I think we have come for the complexity of the mandates I used to really question same thing before and a lot of data that he all starts from when they live and when Santa launches and they demanded are often mimic the human and Town Hall doing something more already protecting people and we're talking obligate now the new brigade which have murdered two are to intervene and where's the extreme and it was kidding um one even notices when countries are providing their troops as part of the admissions they are objects legal-contracts determine whether they should a dyna competition none of ours also request political world really want to die fighting better not bitter enemies and conquer if you don't and probably your commanders are going to hit a little bit that they was it to be frustration if you need prescription market orders and why Chris this lineage inside where everybody to have it done anything Sadie's really demanded to be skipping and Amanda to peacemaking actually income would have been some examples in 2006 income where they were able to tell cindy peace entering Armenian so why are places and why are instances of the Domino's becoming fewer only convince accuracy do that digitizing minerals areas by the subject either of you could do in troops and propeller yes the challenge is a big side this side of the time and I know get too confident other tools actually a country if you imagine that support is to the west is distance between them in Moscow and that is desert and you talk about from combustion to the north that's another modern southern might say there is a challenge but have the positive half cup of spin tomorrow on air come from your sleep well then what working which are also a concern regarding our own time so like this blows up refine his ethical society to illustrate they get the kinect ineffective for half of methods are very more areas where there's not not not no such a thing at clinical anything my love transcends that's exemplar to be given over there and they won't be able to access hospital to bring them please for me and the same to me if they are very eve we can go green if you can go and win so you wanna talk because of all stimulant water police to be happy is d you know if they die inside the airplane and he wasn't one to be one therrien people suppose so because I'm very easy then the country that's how eventually thanks on the freeway can we briefly um is there such in Eric for example how many people in this world would trust them rwanda the broker peace come over you been good proteins or China or America or the UN who have in many cases in under nine politically and are considered phenology opposition by some forces the international community is not exactly United to the city so can be expected to be the United over the resource pot tourism congo has strategic minerals that are fundamentally important to the 21st century upon it it isn't simply a place which is look at the knowingly by the United I thought I think that's the fundamental answer to your question about why it's precisely that the international community is not one thing it's our self-interest so the question of their eyes open even though my cover which I will take two or three now and I think more or less the last round so you need to indicate Depa thank you Michael from Liberia work for international length we wishes come on experience except that we are my understanding is that the dollar complicates there will be new issues emerging issues and different interest so as long as the warring Congo continues they still won't be new things I was listen to people people talking about ethnicity that was before probably next ideas it may not be exactly could be something as so every issue I don't know what can we do but people in Google do it why when it comes to self initiated in terms of addressing the conflict this white teen librarian I mean they got to a point that people are saying okay we are just out of time let's stop this what would take a google is to that point give into they are all economic potential international connections away what I do know is that if internally you are weak as a unit I don't people are some money together done as a resource so what basically leads to that point I want you actually factually hungrily lifeblood will take a couple more things now maybe they'll be two more my name is James I'm a resident your system Sir James Spanish protection an interesting point usually there is an element of religious sectarian violence involved in this time only for that sort of touch I was wondering if that might be explored further in I'm too in that role of a calm down to 140 how both need to be the fight with ask me about the you can just ignore all the natural resources right in this and there is obviously a role that is also been playing keyboard tragedy but also those sort of billions of dollars investment already underway for the past week on whether pouring money into the governing Kinshasa and I said something about growing the cake in the Congo so that it can come pick us up to speed doing is this this kind of investment use it I you know in that positive thing for the condom or is it open exit another just a hand over her head and you know my name is easier to must be getting old your mommy's funny center I really want to say something is going to be really interesting for every single person here uh provider fact about was just as Christian happen yes eight million people that so far is not eight thousand let don't shine away to say that theory that it much mobility is part of the problem that line is ratios no come out I say I think we can take one more talk about the fat one thank you so much under the University of Sussex forgive my ignorance now I'm listen rent on the conflict but I still feel very ignorant in terms of the peace deal so I wonder whether if you could explain whether the peace deal that has been agreed he's actually tackling some issues it wasn't very circuit i love these liberal peace building strategy of bringing the international community and what I want to really understand is to see whether is a chance for a piece built on road and ownership in a convoy hey okay so there's a range of things here this is the last round of questions you can hear from breaking shoes I mean one of one of the issues which was very much this up not being afraid to make massive problem I think we've been doing if you want to comment further that's fine there's the company's just say no approach to ask you about when when does that one question the religion in that and then the issue of the piece is it is it actually one can always assign I think a common is really off highest i mean the very little games impossible in cooperation with interest and when a below the trust i keeping so forces in any is any and where is from two thousand and nine to twelve and it's a short moment of some form of a functional between Kinshasa keone it wasn't peace it wasn't stability it was limited to a small number of highly placed people who were even aware of what the contents of that dear ones but it did provide some space for holy are talking about governance issues decentralization and rationality question well issues that are very sensitive now we'll return to what it seems to be reasonably questions war or presented itself that space code and for the simple rhythm that so many holidays is in fact I live on less than a dollar a day they simply cannot fault go marching in the street that's not going to be in this context and Arab sprang from TLC because people are just too cool it can't afford to go strike for more than 24 hours and also they moved over 50 years brutal exploitation whether it was under a colonial regime or ultimate governments have just come to a new state I think in the belief that they themselves will change their situation and fall over and over and over again that other people are at the root of your problems and other people can solve those problems for you so whether it is even peacekeeping force and so I really I think it's so that is the reason the big challenges how how to enable college to become access collaborative changes so it's 1 comment on the PSP relief operation chromite it's trying to work I wouldn't even beat all the pieces i know this is how it's being sold because also it's very human we need to see some light and at the top we need to believe those things really going to work this brigade many readers get work and understand it but it is a very very weak statement of intent that is all analysts it doesn't even even in that it does not contain a single interpret have any voiced and sign many times report so really for that to become more than just bland statement and sent that has to be really serious political process put meat on that has to improvise regional and domestic as what and domestic dialogue that cannot be solely control my category just mentioned because then it will be orange for protecting right so father your sizes can vary in terms of what is what is are doing I mean we are doing we did you a lot and he may be mentioning these society com vs panties and clearly people an ominous you have one of the most dead man civil society in Africa you have sim side of me invoicing against pretty cool off and turning it's one of them Janice was killed just about a week ago articles we had an amazing civil society if was trying to need a support means that we provide 6pm everything in the 80 degrees suspension group I which is large and it actual product of a chemist and government so we are trying the other simply huge and alert against us in terms of the peace till I think obviously there is internally essentially it has full moon stones democracy and to stop interference on neighboring corner and security sector reform and you know sort of expand cross-border trade in terms of democracy appear before Election Day 2008 the etchant it will be absurd to assume that a better one he simply did not we you know the guide one is dissipative up against in power and one international has yet been recognized if I no one has the courage the party said is no you know the difference so if that's the reason for going over that you have an issue which a cannoli sandwich our channel for instance there man is expiring you love journey 2012 oh my the society has no money so that's what I did they continue to see the continued to be parliamentarian the content we see it even 5,000 pounds a month why this institutional receiving thirty dollars a month so it doesn't it because of the issues and also useful medicine another communes a local election which was promised in 2006 after present a it hasn't happened in terms of socket appearance first and visual sign goes in 2003 999 it was like a pivot as you know he continued interference so unless is required in there is a consolidation entrust the security sector reform injustice in patina to it and villa and not also change edibles in the army to get out of the old all jahanum to justice overall city could potentially be killed himself it's that way his power his leadership his presidency weston security sir you know insecurity being present impunity being frightened the institutional estate malfunctioning that's also a reason our he can enhance certain people in the government in politics or in the army to the internet to do justice it's basically going to happen in general cause for the trade away yet who really happens illegal any other pics on the remove religion men could be significant and particle is at the catholic church is amazingly significant in zagreb we the only institution 17 to function perfectly well in from Istanbul and be handing us again the content which is libelous provided and then you also have other information yes I suppose I would begin to answer with the little big man this thing yet revolves around the life of their own fabula in the ninth inning he was living as a o Lord things healthy as war or what he controlled the coal mines he was selling the go to Tanzania but he needed weapons so he traded for the Congolese army but he was normally fun they wanted my goal of either needed work they can easily communicate across the front part it was gold and the extraction of gold right I don't relax at this point to the presence of a wall over there are me too much booboo tatami extracting gold together cause immense problems the only thing later perfect result because the army were patient so it was a up for the nightmare that was conditioned by the natural resource of gold and it is now commissioned by the coal town reserves all the way they were obviously more but the very core has become less valuable is becoming worse because it means that labor that you to contain is now scream so the resources and go back to this question keywords at a small scale of our part of a bigger problem on the DL C which is the results question which is shaping the matter adult governments so the economy drives government just as government buys economy and so we've got a chicken and egg situation unless the economic resource question is addressed at the same time little I can't see the switch and that provide the international as well I limbs that where the question religious link I think jess is an interesting one welcome to hidden or aluminized dynamics which is sir personally I see is financial relief I am think that um an example is most money in my mind wishes having routing our soldiers or recruiting ended up based on full believe that each emotional steps into this water it would be bullets and that have been encoded in redmond armies are painted intervals or the pain that won't any particles and that would appear in negotiation table as well those are hidden even asked whether we tell you that they have appropriate appropriate are told me that I will be in the hole so now if you have to dynamic to davids two engines your dealings in modern context without us biologic leave and you have those are able to jack even stronger so you're feeling emotional context of negotiation table now this is believed that's only going to be doing a same time you have a profit that Tony are you found so what do you do after where is not say that's that's what people religious belief and it does it's a court order or four different animals or past and religious advisor and go back to the question overall the only pool someone from our Liberia outside for a minute and ask really stretch push it can only stay one day we have had enough now in in the country of that we're psycho furnace have become we become converted a life and it is actually that's it what him have known I've seen someone playing short in front me when all seven and thats have been ongoing that you in my lifetime see and in the National a rational understanding of issues if the term can be the best become kind of an issue where people have not against the point where say okay can we go back and say why are we into this that's the only thing that and alcohol option you do that option when you have known something different and that's where female announcer I am giving you a negative answer but that's where there is a 80 fixity of oil pan and my last answer to the question around their natural sources incredible it could move in the National intentional response to the conflict minerals and the legislation into methane into some pain last but i have to say that if almost implicitly simplify and positives are just mentioned something which incredible dimming where rockefeller was dealing i'm setting and filling our goal to easily write it that's exactly what stabling on that the way we talk about minerals is as if those conflict minerals comes with with the community inside or oh the company clean some sort of work done Siddle quick do something no and it's traceable the pressing of those minerals particle I mean you know where you stand if you're talking something you know you don't rip on with it and he has the regular Hardy about people too so then we'll be trading each other the treasure and it's because there's no way you can place the order they could everybody's co-opted how the rating system so by the time you get to know the travelodge to Thomas supply chain it goes cleaner asked in South Africa and by 10pm again it's London is need more cleaner of how you started with adachi that chick click create new cleaner clear but your housing are you know nutrition so it's very oversimplified when it comes to talk about over to know and you okay I am I mean the same thing one of the issues in is this question of how you translate for just saying though the team that people feel how do you translate a team into action and one of the things which we've been talking about the multiple barriers about the barriers which existing systems of power of areas of existing systems of trade international interest and barriers that exist inside people's heads and it's not a poor going to be easy to push through that too many through that which is not going to be quick I think we all know now what I want to ask around off each of the four panelists to do and it's a one-minute task you are getting into an elevator with somebody who has power of decision in a way that could influence possibly for better or possibly for us a situation that the energy you have between now and the 12th for one who is it it really got into the elevator width and what do you say we'll start from 100 but okay oh they are two ways you can solve the quest Cinco the shorter way and they don't worry they don't worry this is the UNT regretted be my children and there is a chance by the time we reach the end there will be no one that about the Hebrews and they are four major problems in terms of the humanitarian the u-17 race equality for eyes addressing punitive addressing security and press institutional failing each other and address the international trade of blood or conflict minerals those are the all drivers of these classes so that's the only way that's the humanitarian with the shorter way which is much more difficult is advanced requests of energy in kinshasa you solve that issue you deal with interesa everything else Wow and this is already surrounded by people help people so it's already booked you want to make your country strong externally so that you can resist the memory so you want you need to make a puffy strong internal and this can only happen if citizens feel that the state actually is providing public goods including security and that they had a say in local medicine pepper and that means you need to be centralized decision-making processes bring those processes closer to the citizens like you said you would in the country's constitution which says has never knew thing one can use any model that you want but it is but it is get something done for the Congolese I guess is closer to when people decide to be back if you have to send somebody again I go back then I'll go to Las Vegas sort of to the career and what I'll send him is the external forces we've not seen the answer anthropologie own the total all the pollution and built a strong finish that we promote adhesion of everyone in the country and external forces have been there for many instances you are the UN troops divide mercenaries and there were French troops 1980s and now you have troops you in terms of this casino alligator costume together look say out remind him other which you know being happened the brigade that is their page you want aw ass actually ownership or backing down the price compare well up to rice is taken for being cold there is something you can do by 1000 people then I'm going to focus on the outside of the inside and basically I would speak to a camera companies people and sit back marywood why because she has no history of engagement with the peace process she's from Ireland the Irish particular heroic role in company's history project placement addressing Leopold's legacy enforcing a solution to the resource they conflicts that have to be whatever they give it to try and and she is the figure 2 micro through an external relationship difficulties okay great thank you all so much this is such a tangled and contentious and complex question it can be sometimes my ruling question we haven't stopped but I think also we've also seen some ways in which is possible to report what is the title of your book look like what state okay so based on your experience there in the LC a lot some copies here if you'd like to see it because we also have a report sitting at the back you can hold it up because you are the author on a few people ending the deadlock towards a new in the piece in eastern DRC which I think offers a really coated be clear analysis of many of the things that we've been talking about to see it's really a lot of good reaction you can now relax by having a drink some snacks season get all sound panel members and ask the questions that you didn't ask thank you very much for your attention during receive please join me in planting you

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